On the inevitability of quality management and qua

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Talking about the inevitability of quality management and quality system

1 preface

in reality and daily life, we talk about the quality of a product to describe the good or bad of the product. In fact, the meaning of this word is far more than that

in the era of planned economy before the reform and opening up, the material is relatively poor, and most products are in the seller's market. People often have little extravagant expectations for the quality and use function of products. With the reform and opening up, China has gradually shifted from planned economy to market economy, and foreign advanced management concepts have also entered the country. With the rapid development of science and technology and the emergence of new equipment, new materials and new ideas, People's requirements for product quality and the needs of enterprises' own development, quality has been widely valued. In the late 1970s, the new concept of total quality management was put forward. The popularization and education of total quality management knowledge against this difficulty was carried out on a large scale throughout the country, and the activities of the "QC" group were carried out, which made great changes in the quality awareness and quality management ideas and concepts of the majority of employees. The ideas, theories and methods of total quality management were gradually accepted by people, and there were nearly three decades of successful experience and lessons, The quality awareness is gradually improving, and the rules and regulations are gradually improving. However, it should be noted that the quality management level of our country is not high compared with that of the more developed countries, and the experience is insufficient. The quality management and quality system of individual enterprises are still in the form. At present, the quality management of our country should be said to be gradually entering the successful stage from the primary stage

2 clear definition of quality

the national standard gb/and the international standard (ISO) have clear definitions of quality: the definition is ----- the sum of the characteristics that reflect the entity's ability to meet explicit or implicit needs. The entity can be an activity and process (such as the process in which the contractor is entrusted by the owner to perform the construction contract in addition to a series of problems generated by components, or the process in which the manufacturer is entrusted to produce products) : it can also be tangible products of activities or process results (such as buildings, equipment, household appliances, etc.). Or intangible products (such as intellectual property, design drawings, etc.), or organizational systems and people. It can be seen that the main body of quality includes not only the product itself, but also the whole process of manufacturing products, activities, organization system and people participating in the whole activity process. Therefore, quality management is actually the control of products, implementation process, organization system and people's behavior

from the definition of quality, we also see that the quality subject should also meet explicit or implicit needs, which need to be generally transformed into the characteristics of the specified criteria, such as applicability, safety, reliability, scientificity, economy, beauty and environmental coordination. If a product is imperfect in one aspect, it is difficult to say that the quality of the product is excellent, at least it is not viable or competitive. This is that in many cases, these characteristics may change with the change of time and environment, which is equivalent to the popular style we often say. With the change of time, the appreciation level of customers is also changing at the same time. We haven't heard of any product or brand that has been in an invincible position for a long time without any innovation. On the contrary, how a famous brand is favored by consumers is not superstitious about its brand effect, but that the manufacturer continues to reform and innovate to meet the clear needs of customers

clarifying the need is generally acceptable to people and can be achieved through efforts to expand the scope of bilateral local currency swaps. Objectively, it reflects people's needs and expectations, which are defined in standard specifications, drawings and technical documents

the implied need is different. On the one hand, it refers to the expectations of customers or society for products, on the other hand, it refers to those recognized, self-evident needs that do not need to be clearly defined, such as: housing should meet people's minimum living function; Cars can walk by driving when they are produced; Clothes can be worn by people when they are produced, etc. there is no need to make clear regulations. In addition, implicit needs are also limited by regional characteristics and personal appreciation level, so it is inconvenient to specify clearly. We see that most successful enterprises have made great efforts in implicit needs, have strong scientific research teams, carry out a lot of market research work, timely create and produce products that meet market needs, seize market share, and remain invincible

it should be noted that in addition to meeting the explicit and implicit requirements of customers as stated in the definition of quality, it is not only for customers, but also to consider the needs of society and the interests of citizens, which requires entities to comply with relevant national laws and regulations. For example, some products are suitable for the needs of some regions, while these products or functions are not required in other regions. For example, HVAC facilities need to be considered in the design of rooms in northern China, In most areas of the south, there is no need to consider, because these products do not have the conditions to meet the needs and do not have the required quality. In other words, this is a waste, and such quality requirements are meaningless

explicit or implicit needs are sometimes limited by regions. Different regions have different needs, and these different needs are different, which is what we often call "applicability"

to sum up, the word "quality" includes the product itself and a series of activities and processes carried out around the product, as well as the organizational system and people and their combination. Through the formulation of quality objectives and quality responsibilities, and the systematic implementation of plans, it is what we call quality management

3 quality management and its five basic contents

quality management refers to "all activities that determine the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities, and implement all management functions in the quality system, such as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement"

quality management is the responsibility of managers at all levels, which requires the participation of all employees of the enterprise organization and undertake corresponding and obligations

quality policy refers to "the general quality purpose and quality direction of the Organization officially issued by the top management of the organization". It reflects the quality awareness and quality pursuit of the members of the organization. It is the code of conduct within the organization. It reflects the expectations and commitments of customers

quality objectives are the specific requirements of implementing the quality policy and the specific provisions on the level expected to be achieved by the entity and work quality in a certain period of time. The quality objectives should be advanced and feasible, and should be decomposed and implemented to all functional departments, grass-roots units and operators, so as to assess the implementation, inspection and evaluation of quality objectives. Quality planning refers to "activities to determine quality and adopt the objectives and requirements of quality system elements". It includes entity planning and operation planning, including organizational arrangements, providing necessary resources and management support for the realization of entity quality, and preparing for the implementation of the quality system

quality assurance refers to "all systematic activities that are verified as needed in order to provide sufficient trust to show that the entity can meet the quality requirements and implement them in the quality system". Quality assurance is the ability of an entity to meet the quality requirements through evidence. In order to make people believe in this ability, quality assurance can be divided into internal quality assurance and external quality assurance according to different purposes. The former is to provide evidence to the internal managers of the organization to show that the entity meets the quality requirements, and the latter is to provide sufficient evidence to customers or other parties to show that the entity meets the quality requirements; Gain the trust of customers and other parties

quality improvement refers to "various measures aimed at improving the efficiency and efficiency of the activity process within the whole organization in order to provide more benefits to the organization and customers." With the progress of science and the improvement of people's material and cultural level, the requirements for entities are also changing. In order to meet the needs of the market and provide customers with more satisfactory products, it is necessary to improve the quality of long-term and continuous technological innovation

4 quality system and its required four parts

quality system refers to "the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources required to achieve quality management". According to the definition, the quality system includes four parts

that is, organizational structure: "the organizational structure, responsibilities, authorities and interrelationships established by an organization in a certain way to exercise its functions are the organization and personnel guarantee of the quality system"

procedure; Administrative and technical systems (usually documented)

process: a group of related resources and activities that convert input into output. All activities of the quality system are completed through the process

resources: talents, skills, equipment, experimental equipment, etc

the four parts of the quality system are interrelated and are the core part of quality management. Its content should be based on meeting the needs of quality objectives. At the same time, it is also the management system of quality policy and quality objectives. As mentioned above, quality management has four components: quality system, quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. The quality system also has four parts, namely, organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources

the concept of quality management and quality system was put forward in the 1980s. In 1987, the formal IS09000 standard was issued, which was widely welcomed by countries all over the world. In 1988, China adopted ISO9000 series standards (its standard number is gb/t10300) and actively carried out pilot work. In 1992, ISO9000 family standards (its standard number is gb/t9000) were equally adopted

with more than 30 years of experience in publicizing and implementing gb/t19000 standards, many enterprises have conscientiously implemented the standards, established and improved the quality system, and seriously carried out quality management, so that enterprises can enter the international environment and improve product quality. China's import and export trade soared from more than 100 billion US dollars to more than 100 billion US dollars. Before the reform and opening up, China's added value was only more than 300 billion US dollars. Now China's added value has reached more than 700 billion US dollars, and has become the world's second largest economy

5 the origin of the production

throughout the quality management and quality system, the inevitability of its production can be summarized in several aspects:

5.1 international environment: in international economic cooperation, especially in the bidding of projects, it is an international practice to require the production of ISO9000 quality system certification. Only through the ISO9002 quality system certification, can we prove that the enterprise has the ability to ensure product quality. It shows that the quality management of the enterprise has been institutionalized and standardized, and the quality management has reached a considerable level. Its product quality can meet the clear needs of customers and the implicit needs of society. The enterprise has a high social reputation and market competitiveness

5.2 in order to maintain the advantages of their products for a long time, enterprises should strengthen quality management, improve the quality awareness of all employees, make their products enter the international market as soon as possible, and make their products more competitive

5.3 national advocacy: so far, the Chinese government has not made clear or mandatory provisions on quality management and the establishment of quality system, and enterprises adopt the principle of complete voluntariness, which shows that the separation of government and enterprises has been completely achieved, and at the same time, it also leaves time space for enterprises to hope and encourage enterprises to be practical and realistic, strengthen their own reform, and enter as soon as possible

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